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Full text of "Classical Guitar Instruction for the Pre-College Classroom"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/classicalguitariOOwues 



-•I 



The undergsigned, appointed by the Schwob School of Music at 
Columbus State University, have examined the Graduate Music Project titled 



CLASSICAL GUITAR INSTRUCTION FOR THE PRE-COLLEGE CLASSROOM 

presented by Blake Wuestefeld 
a candidate for the degree of Master of Music in Music Education 
and hereby certify that in their opinion it is worthy of acceptance. 




(Project Advisor) 




J 



Classical Guitar Instruction for the Pre-College Classroom 

Blake Wuestefeld 

Columbus State University 

December 2007 



Ill 
Abstract: 

This project is a curriculum for secondary guitar instruction. It consists of eight 
levels of study and is designed for the beginning to intermediate student. It has repertoire 
selections and explanations of the pedagogical validity of the works. These works were 
selected due to their cumulative and didactic nature and because of the specific technical 
issues they utilize. These technical issues are introduced gradually to ensure a student's 
steady and incremental progress in both technical and musical aspects. 

The student executes exercises from such sources as Aaron Shearers: Learning 
the Classic Guitar, the Royal Conservatory of Music graded repertoire series, and works 
by many of the most celebrated composers for the instrument. This project includes 
repertoire of all styles and periods and is truly varied. It is an invaluable tool for any 
guitar educator. 



IV 



Table of Contents 

Abstract iii 

Introduction 1 

Level 1 5 

Level 2 19 

Level 3 24 

Level 4 29 

Level 5 32 

Level 6 35 

Level 7 38 

Level 8 41 

Appendix A: Repertoire list 46 

References 52 



Introduction. 

Throughout its history, there have been a variety of contributions to the pedagogical 
philosophy of the classical guitar. Thanks to the accomplishments of such important 
pedagogues as, among others, Aaron Shearer, Matteo Carcassi, Mauro Giuliani, Fernando 
Sor, and Dionisio Aguado, there is a great deal of information available to aspiring 
guitarists. One can draw from these diverse contributions many useful instructions and 
exercises. 

An extremely positive aspect of guitar is its recent rise in popularity. As a result, 
a demand for guitar instruction has grown to the point where the private sector alone is 
not able to meet the social need. This has lead to the introduction of guitar instruction in 
public schools. This growth requires the need to assess the way that music educators 
teach guitar. While disciplines such as band or chorus have long been taught in the 
classroom setting, guitar has generally been taught in the one-on-one lesson forum. There 
is now a need to teach the instrument in a class setting. This project is a compilation of 
repertoire and method that results in a practical, concise collection that will prove to be 
an invaluable tool for a secondary guitar teacher. 

This curriculum is intended for a secondary school student who is taking guitar 
ensemble for a two-year sequence. It is divided into eight sequential and didactic levels. 
Executing these levels requires the student to master important aspects of guitar playing. 
The curriculum follows a standard four semester high school schedule, with each year 
divided into two sections. Moreover, it is cumulative, sequential, and allows for any area 
specific standards requirements. Each level consists of appropriate studies, works, and 
exercises for a developing guitarist. 



The first level is intended for an absolute beginner who has no experience with 
the instrument. Issues concerning seating, posture, holding the guitar, nail shaping and 
basic right-and-left hand techniques are introduced. In addition, basic music reading is 
introduced in the first position. Next is a continuation of the principles of level one and 
reinforces competency on the guitar and reading in the first position, and include the 
beginning of simple arpeggio studies. Level three adds in more advanced right-hand 
studies as well as music extending up to fifth position. The next section continues with 
studies and elementary repertoire with the addition of advanced scale patterns. The fifth 
consists of beginning pieces as well as the continuous advancement of both right-and left- 
hand studies. The following level introduces shorter multi-movement works and music 
reading beyond the fifth position. The seventh level includes more advanced knowledge 
on fingering and left-hand techniques such as different types of slurs and simple trills. 
The final stage requires students to read in all positions, play at the intermediate level and 
have knowledge of extended techniques. 

Each of these levels will include repertoire lists and specific musical examples of 
each technique that is to be taught, as well other pieces that include the same kind of 
issue. This is a defined sequential method of teaching class guitar on the secondary level. 



Below is a summary of issues addressed in each level of the lesson plan. 



Levels of Development 



Level 


Goal 


1 


Seating, posture, holding the guitar, nail 

shaping, basic right and left hand 

techniques, basic music reading in the first 

position. 


2 


Seating, posture, holding the guitar, nail 

shaping, basic right and left hand 

techniques, basic music reading in the first 

position, arpeggio studies. 


3 


Arpeggio studies, reading up to fifth 
position. 


4 


Arpeggio studies, reading up to fifth 
position, easier repertoire. 


5 


Arpeggio studies, reading up to fifth 
position, more advanced repertoire. 


6 


Arpeggio studies, reading up to 
fifth position, more advanced repertoire, 
shorter multi movement works. 


7 


Arpeggio studies, reading up to fifth 



4 





position, more advanced repertoire, shorter 

multi movement works, improved left hand 

fingering and techniques. 


8 


Arpeggio studies, reading, more advanced 

repertoire, shorter multi movement works, 

improved left hand fingering and 

techniques, improved reading in all 

positions. 



Level 1. 

AjL Right hand technique 

Right hand technique is the most important initial issue to be addressed in 
classical guitar instruction. The volume, tone, and speed of a student are all affected by 
the technical mastery of the right hand. Without a proper right-hand technique, in 
addition to inaccuracy and poor tone, injuries may occur such as repetitive strain injury. 
RSI, as it is known, is an umbrella term for any muscular, tendon, or nerve disorder 
caused by any movement that employs undue tension to execute a movement. It can 
result in the student not being able to play the instrument and having pennanent issues 
with his or her hands (http://content.nejm.Org/cgi/content/short/355/8/8 1 8). Avoiding 
counterproductive tension is the foundation of good guitar playing and is crucial for the 
development of the student. The goal of good right-hand technique is to be able to 
execute movement without the least amount of undue strain or tension. This can be 
accomplished by following many of the ideas outlined in Aaron Shearer's Learning the 
Classic Guitar Vol. 1. 

The overall goal of proper right-hand guitar technique is to execute movement in 
a way that is the most efficient and ergonomic; this is known as "Productive Tension." 
The opposite of this type of tension known as "Counter Productive Tension," is when the 
hand moves in an awkward way that encourages excess tension in the hand. The human 
hand executes movement best when it utilizes what Shearer calls "The Four Principles of 
Efficient Motor Function" (Shearer 1990). They encompass every part of playing with 
productive tension. 



Muscular alignment is the first of these four principles and is the first step to 
playing with proper technique. This is the idea that "Muscles function most efficiently 
only when naturally aligned with their base and joint attachments" (Shearer 1990). This 
alignment allows the most efficient movement of the hand, wrist, arm, and back. 

The second of these principles is the midrange function of joints. This concept 
states that muscles function well when they are in the midrange position. The midrange 
position is when each joint is at rest. The muscles in the human body do two things, they 
contract or relax. On any joint there are two types of these muscles, flexors and 
extenders. Flexors are the muscles that cause a joint to contract. An example of this is 
the muscles used to close one's hand. Extenders are the muscles on the outside of the 
joint such as the ones that open the hand. The midrange position is when both the flexors 
and extenders each have the least amount of tension in them. A good example of the 
midrange position is to drop one's arm to the side, the natural curve the hand makes is the 
mid-range position. 

Uniform direction of joint movement is one of the principles that many guitarists 
find difficult to accomplish. This principle states that "Muscles function most efficiently 
only when all three joints of a finger or the thumb are either flexed or extended together" 
(Shearer 1990). This is the concept that when one moves a finger in the direction of 
flexion then all of the joints must contract or extend in the same direction. 

The final principle is follow-through; this is the notion that when a movement has 
begun, there is no restraint applied to stop the movement. An excellent example of this is 
in baseball, where a batter does not stop his swing once he hits the ball. The player 
allows the movement of swinging the bat to complete its natural cycle. 



7 

The instruction of right hand technique is so paramount that a student must 
accomplish the fundamentals of this technique before the left-hand is even discussed. 
The following exercises are designed as the initial lesson. They are a list of right-hand 
exercises that encompass twelve basic movements used in playing guitar. The system 
used here is the standard labeling of fingers used in all of classical playing. The thumb is 
labeled P, and is taken from the Spanish word pulgar the index finger is labeled /, and 
stands for indcce the middle finger M, which represents medio and the ring finger A 
which is the abbreviation of anular. 



Right Hand Exercises. 

AMI 
A 

M 

1 

I alternating with AMI 

M alternating with AMI 

A alternating with AMI 

AMI arpeggio 

IMA arpeggio 

P 

P alternating with AMI 

AM IP arpeggio 

PIMA arpeggio 



B. Musical literacy. 



Level 1 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


1.1 So-RE One 


Shearer 


Practice playing the open G 
an D strings 


1.2 Bugler's Tune 


Shearer 


Practice playing three open 
strings. 


1.3 Scale Song 


Shearer 


Practice playing part of the 
major scale. 


1.4 Counterpoint 


Shearer 


Student is introduced to the 
basic idea of counterpoint. 


1.5 77z<? Weaver 


Shearer 


Improvement in reading 
quarter and eighth note 
passages, develops a sense 
of rhythmic proportions 


1.6 Dance of the Downward 
Skip 


Shearer 


Practice skipping multiple 
strings. 


1.7 March 


Shearer 


Practice using P 
exclusively. 


1.8 Serenade 


Shearer 


Student plays multiple lines 
for the first time. 


1.9 Folk Dance 


Shearer 


Similar to Serenade, but 



10 







with more complex rhythm. 


1.10 Two by Two 


Shearer 


Student plays two notes 
simultaneously. 


1.11 Petite Valse 


Shearer 


Student plays in a musical 
texture common to guitar. 


1.12 Andante I 


Shearer 


Rhythmically similar 
Serenade, with a greater 
variety of notes. 


1.13 Music Box 


Shearer 


Alternates P with IM 


1.14 Moorish Dance 


Shearer 


Alternates a bass line with 
broken chords. 


1.15 The Gondolier 


Shearer 


PIM Arpeggio 


1.16 Etude Moderne 


Shearer 


PIM Arpeggio 



Musical literacy is an aspect of the classical guitar that is of the highest 
importance. Unlike popular styles such as folk, rock, or finger style of the instrument, it 
is essentially impossible to be a successful classical guitarist and not be able to read 
music. The text that I have chosen for the initial section of the curriculum is Aaron 
Sheaer's Learning the Classic Guitar Vol. II. This is an industry standard method and 
has proven itself to be one of the finest texts in this area. It is also helpful for these initial 
exercises to be contained in a single volume. The following are the exercises that are to 



11 

be introduced after the sections material has been presented. Each chapter begins with 
the introduction of the material to be learned. The first thing introduced is the open G 
and D string. While the book explains that one needs to use P to play these notes, it 
seems to be more advantageous to use I for the D string and M for the G. This allows the 
student to stay in a more comfortable position while learning to read music. The student 
should keep P on the bass string to allow for a more stable position. The chapter then 
gives short studies in the form of duets. The top line is the student and the 
accompaniment line is for the teacher. This gives the student the opportunity to play with 
someone at the very beginning of their training, and for development of rhythm. The end 
of each chapter includes a solo piece that encompasses everything learned. 



12 



1 . 1 Reading exercise 1- LCGII pg. 14-15 So-RE On ( Shearer 1990) 
Student 



3§:r:i:-fi: 



^:=ifc 



fcftrse 



'^EE: 



EJE 



"#■- -ar~ 



Eft:. ~i$hz: 



Teacher 

This is an example of one of the exercises used in the first chapter. This exercise 
lets the student practice playing both the open G and D strings. An excellent aspect of 
these exercises is that these pieces utilize the open strings. Using open strings allows the 
student to be able to keep the standard posture that they have already learned. It 
encourages follow-through, and is also helpful because each finger is only assigned one 
string. 

1.2 Reading exercise 2- LCGII pg. 17 Bit2ler's Tune (Shearer 1990) 




This is an example of one of the end-chapter solo pieces. It includes use of the open 
G, D, and B strings. This allows the student to use three finger and encourages follow- 
through. 



13 



1.3 Reading exercise 3-LCGI1 pg. 26 Scale Son2 (Shearer 1990) 



in 






^^ 



This exercise utilizes diatonic writing to introduce the student to a portion of the 
major scale. The second section also has eighth-note rests followed by successive 
eighth notes. Practicing this exercise helps the student develop a better sense of 
rhythm. 
1.4 Reading exercise 4-LCGII pg. 28 Counterpoint (Shearer 1990) 



I 



^m 



Counterpoint 's strength lies in that it tests a student's ability to play a single line 
while the teacher plays counterpoint. This requires the student to be able to listen to 
not only their own part, but to their partner's part as well. 
1.5 Reading exercise 5-LCGII pg. 29 The Weaver (Shearer 1990) 



£ 



r lt " 



The Weaver requires the student to play eighth-note passages. This helps the 
student to improve their reading skills and overall speed. The change from quarter to 
eighth to half notes also helps the student to develop a sense of rhythmic 
proportionality. 



14 



1.6 Reading exercise 6-LCGII pg.35 Dance of the Downward Skip (Shearer 1990) 
M.M. J = 116 



i 



^ 



n~rr J ' J 






Dance of the Downward Skip covers all of the notes presented in the previous lessons. 
It is sixteen bars long with constant quarter notes with only one half-note at measure 
eight. It also requires the student to skip multiple strings; an increasingly difficult 
technique. The work also requires students to read larger intervals. 

1.7 Reading exercise 7-LCGII pg.42 March (Shearer 1990) 



f^in 



The March is an excellent exercise for students to practice playing bass notes with P 
for the first time. I, M, and A are not being used, so the player can rest those fingers on 
the top three strings, which gives the student a proper reference point for playing this 
exercise as well as stability 
1.8 Reading exercise 8 LCGH pg. 44 Serenade (Shearer 1990) 



i i m 



L 



^M 



ffrrr 



L 



rzni 



Serenade is the first exercise in the text that has two parts for the student. Shearer 
introduces this concept to the student by having each individual part play on different 
beats. In this piece, the student never plucks more than one string at a time but begins to 
understand the concept of playing multiple parts. 



15 



1.9 Reading exercise 9 LCGII Folk Dance (Shearer 1990) 



1 



J>fi \ r J 



IX 



r 



HUT 



Folk Dance is the final piece in the section dedicated to playing music with 
multiple lines. It is similar to Seranade but contains more difficult rhythms such as the 
dotted-quarter-eighth note motive in the first measure. It is repeated throughout the work 
and helps the student with issues of counting. 
1.10 Reading exercise 10 LCGII pg. 53 Two by Two (Shearer 1990) 

m r r f i - 1 m m 

Two by Two introduces the next level dealing with playing two notes simultaneously. 
This exercise stands out from many others due to the concept of the piece. The examples 
from the Shearer text provide music which can bring the student incrementally to the next 
level by having them execute simultaneous notes both a third and a fifth apart. Keeping 
to these specific intervals gives the student a greater sense of accomplishment due to the 
increased activity in both hands, without excessive left-hand difficulty. 



16 



1.11 Reading exercise XI LCGII pg. 54 Petite Valse (Shearer 1990) 



ff#^ 



f 



r 



« 



r 



p 



Pefr'ft? Valse introduces the student to a common guitar texture: valse 
accompaniment. The combination of a bass note followed by two quarter notes is found 
in much of the guitar repertoire. This not only gives the student practice in playing two 
notes on the treble strings at the same time but also gives them experience playing in a 
common waltz-style texture. 

1.12 Reading exercise XII. LCGII pg. 58 Andante I (Shearer 1990) 



i 



$ 



BE 



1 



fUU 



m m m m m 



Much like the Serenade, Andante I, is an exercise that simulates playing treble 
and bass at the same time. Another beneficial aspect of this piece is the introduction of D 
major; a common key in guitar music. It also implements the use of alternating I on the E 
string and M on the B string. This is excellent practice for when the student begins same- 
string alternation subsequent example. 



17 



1.13 Reading exercise XIV. LCGII pg. 64 Music Box I (Shearer 1990) 



tf — w — m— ' m — m—^ m — w-* m — 



This exercise introduces the student to alternating between two simultaneous notes 
being played and a bass note. This is one of the most important studies in the book and 
the student could use this later on as a warm-up. The alternation between fingers and 
thumb that is used is an invaluable aspect of guitar playing. 

1.14 Reading exercise XV. pg.68 Moorish Dance (Shearer 1990) 



I 



M.M. 



J- 



96 



r 



rrr 




In the Moorish Dance, the student alternates between playing a measure of bass notes 
followed by an alternating bass-chord measure. This exercise gives the student 
experience in changing compositional texture with each measure as well as the 
opportunity to focus on P alone, then P with fingers. 



18 



1.15 Reading exercise XVI. pg. 73 The Gondolier (Shearer 1990) 



B EEfegg 



1 



m 



r 



f 



f 

J: 



± 



f 



r/ze Gondolier is the first piece that the student plays an arpeggio pattern, in this 
case it is /YM. This technique is a staple of the classical guitar repertoire and is crucial 
in the development as a guitarist. It is at this time that a student might be able to 
progress from the method book and into actual small pieces, such as arpeggio studies. 
L16 Reading exercise XVII pg. 75 Etude Moderne (Shearer 1990) 



4 



I 



, rp. rrJ, rfl, rft 



i 



r 



f 



r 



F 



This is a supplement to the student if they are having difficulty with the aipeggio 
concept. Many students might need some more time in this text and therefore should 
continue with this exercise. This is because the student might not be able to execute the 
arpeggio pattern with the fluency they need to move onto the next level. 



19 



Level 2. 

Arpeggio Studies 

Studies involving arpeggio patterns provide an excellent foundation for a 
guitarist's right-hand technique. These following studies can have to truly positive affect 
on the rest of the student's guitar playing career. These exercises are also excellent 
material for the student to use as warm-up material, technical development and 



maintenance. 



Level 2 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


2.1 Prelude in A Major Op 
114 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PIMA Arpeggio 


2.2 Prelude in a minor Op 
114. 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PIMA MI Arpeggio 


2.3 Prelude in e minor Op 
114 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PM alternating I Arpeggio 


2.4 Etude #2 in a minor 


Matteo Carcassi 


PIMA followed by changing 
position to play Right hand 
alternation. 


2.5 Etude #19 


Matteo Carcassi 


AMIMA Arpeggio pattern 


2.6 Etude #7 


Matteo Carcassi 


Tremolo 


2.7 Estudio Sencillo 


Leo Brouwer 


PAM1AMIPAMIP 
Arpeggio 



20 



2.1 Prelude in A Major Op 114. -Ferdinando Carulli (Ricordi 1973) 



ri^n^^i^ 



n r r f 



This prelude consists of a repeated right-hand pattern of PIMA. It is the most 
basic of these patterns and is an excellent piece for a warm-up routine. There are some 
more difficult left-hand fingerings but with the experience that the student has already 
acquired, it should be an attainable goal. 

2.2 Prelude in a minor Op 114. -Ferdinando Carulli (Ricordi 1973) 
2 1 




Carulli 's Prelude in a minor features an extremely common arpeggio pattern for 
the aspiring guitarist. It involves a continuous right-hand pattern of PIMAMI. Septuplets 
make up the continuous rhythmic pattern and this gives students the opportunity to play a 
piece with an interesting rhythmic concept. These pieces are also valuable due to the 
frequency that these patterns appear in guitar compositions. 



21 



2.3 Prelude in e minor Op 114. -Ferdinando Carulli (Ricordi 1973) 



iX 


ill 


a, 


in 


m 










a 




i 






4 






J m 








m 


* 


M 




m m 


~m r ■■- m r 



The Prelude in e minor by Carulli is another staple of the classical guitar study 
repertoire. It is an ideal piece for dealing with alternating between P and M together 
followed by /. The real benefit of this study comes when the student moves on to single 
string alternation, and the experience of playing this piece prepares them for this new 
technique. 
2.4 Etude #2 in a minor- Matteo Carcassi (Hemry 1993) 

P 



m JL m '"*- m ^ p i t!! 




mff. 









# m 



t -, 



cresc. 



This study is an excellent way for a student to get introduced to the concept of 
right-hand alternation. This is the technique that requires the player to alternate playing 
with two separate fingers on the right hand. This is almost exclusively done with / and 
M. This is an extremely important part of playing guitar, in that it is the technique used 
to play scales and scale-like passages. This exercise works quite well because the player 
alternates between a standard PIMA arpeggio, to which they are already familiar, 
followed by alternating / and M on the top string. It also involves string crossing, moving 
from the third to the first, which is paramount in right-hand alternation. 



-)•> 



2.5 Etude #19- Matteo Carcassi (Henry 1993) 

I «l 1 4 J. 

~~ fL §E " ^ = - ' - -"^ 



«rf 



# _ » 



i 



, 'W MW4-W-! ■ >» 



i 



# r# ^ # 



r 



This study employs the use of an arpeggio pattern that, unlike most studies, 
begins with A. There are many reasons why students find this etude difficult. One of 
these is that by beginning with A, and playing a bass note at the same time forces the 
player to complete an arpeggio without having the stability of having the thumb give 
support. Another issue is the changing of the right-hand pattern from measure to 
measure. 
2.6 Etude #7- Matteo Carcassi (Henry 1993) 



2? 



¥ 



O 1 J J J » I i I , 1 ' M jj- 
! \ m a 



/ 



t 



This study is designed to introduce the student to the concept of tremolo. While 
tremolo is a more advanced technique, the overall difficulty of this piece is within the 
ability of a student at this level. The technical goal of tremolo is to give the illusion of a 
sustained tone, by having three notes play in sequence followed by a bass note. The 
piece breaks up the tremolo pattern with interludes of arpeggios that have already been 
studied. This gives the student a change in pattern and gives their hand a chance to relax. 



23 



2.7 Estudio Sencillo #6- Leo Brouwer (Brouwer 1972) 




This work by Leo Brouwer is an excellent example of a study that students will 
find challenging. While the execution of this piece is not as difficult as one might think, 
the reading of this piece can be quite intimidating. The piece involves the same right- 
hand pattern but it is more complex than many studies, due to its length. Another difficult 
aspect is how the student must read in higher positions and be able to shift to chord 
shapes with accidentals, which they are not normally accustomed. While many of these 
arpeggio studies require the student to read in positions in which they might not be 
confident, the left hand chord shapes do not change very often, giving the student time to 
reach the chord. 



Level 3. 



Level 3 Repertoire List 



24 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


3.1 Country Dance 


Ferdinando Carulli 


P vs. IM alternation 


3.2 Wilson 's Wilde- 


Anonymous 


Student uses more advanced 
alternation and hannonic 
structure. 


3.3 The Parlement 


Anonymous 


Student uses more advanced 
alternation, more complex 
rhythms, altered tunning 


3.4 Volt 


Anonymous 


Student uses more advanced 
alternation, more complex 
rhythms, altered tunning, 
more shifting of positions. 


3.5 Andante Op.44, No.l 


Fernando Sor 


Work includes monophonic 
texture followed by 
counterpoint. 


3.6 Andante Op. 27 


Ferdinando Carulli 


Student must play 
homophonic texture 
alternating with chords. 


3.7 Andante op. 35, no. 14 


Fernando Sor 


Piece contains more 
advanced rhythmic figures 
and stylistic concerns. 



25 



3.8 Andantino op. 50, No. 

21 


Mauro Giuliani 


This work develops 
students ability to execute 
complex rhythmic ideas and 
stylistic issues 


3.9 Arpegge 


Francis Kleynjans 


The piece utilizes arpeggio 
patterns and modern 
harmonies to give the 
student a piece from a 
different period. 



3. 1 Country Dance- Ferdinando Carulli (Kraft 1990) 




The Country Dance, by Ferdinando Carulli requires the student to develop 
alternation between P and IM. While the score calls for the eighth-notes in the melodic 
line to be played / than M, it is more beneficial for the phrase to be fingered MM. 

3.2 Wilson's Wilde- Anonymous (Noad 1974) 



J gj J -iJ 1<J J - 



f 



r 



26 



Wilson 's Wilde is an excellent work from the Renaissance period. While the 
piece is much less complicated than many of the time, it still is quite a successful 
composition and one that is appropriate for a student of this level. The piece is broken 
into three sections, featuring similar harmonic ideas that could be used to explain many 
theoretical ideas. It also requires the student to use more advanced alternation. Another 
positive aspect of the work is the bass notes location on the open strings, which makes it 
playable. 
3.3 The Parlement- Anonymous (Noad 1974) 



\k 4i) ^ v * jyj ^ t 



w 



o«* 



The work has an excellent melody and contains many excellent pedagogical tools. 
One of these tools is the fact that this piece employs scordatura. The E string is lowered 
to D and this gives the student experience playing with the most common alternate 
tuning. The technical demands of this piece can be difficult for a beginner. It requires 
alternation and string crossing, this is challenging but accessible. 

3.4 Volt- Anonymous (Noad 1974) 



I 



ft % in- g — ~=M . 

r r lf 



27 

Volta is another piece that a student must play with D tuning. It makes an 
excellent companion piece to The Parlement as they are in the same key, both are shorter 
works, and stylistically consistent. 
3.5 Andante Op.44, No.l-Fernando Sor (Jeffery 200 1 ) 



m 
i 



A m 

i 



M 



- *r 3J 



m 



r 



This simple work of Sor serves as an excellent piece for the aspiring guitarist. 
While the work mainly consists of a monophonic texture, the ending is contrapuntal. 
This work helps the student in many ways, one of which is how the solo line simply 
outlines chords. This helps the student learn how left-hand chord shapes are formed and 
assists in their overall reading ability. 



3.6 Andante Op. 27- Ferdinando Carulli (Kraft 1990) 
i m i m i, 



w £Fftyl 



i 



>/ 



Andante is a wonderful exercise for a student guitarist who is now able to play a 
slightly more advanced piece of the repertoire. This execution of this piece helps 
students to be able to play both scale material and alternating chords. This allows the 
student to be able to play both scales and chords in one piece. Due to the Ternary form of 
the work, it is longer than most of the examples and performing this work can improve a 
student's stamina. 



28 



3. 7 Andante op.35, no. 14-Fernando Sor (Jeffery 2001 ) 

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This work involves the implementing of the dotted-quarter-sixteenth rhythm. 
There are also two instances that involve triplets. This is an excellent piece to solidify a 
student's rhythm and to teach the stylistic concerns that are associated with it. 
3.8 Andantino op. 50, No. 21-Mauro Giuliani (Jeffery 2002) 



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Andantino is another piece from the classical period that can help with odd 

rhythmic issues later on in the piece as well as contrapuntal writing, it could also be a 

great way to show students the similarities and differences in the works of Giuliani and 

his contemporary, Sor. 

3.9 Arpegge- Francis Kleynjans (Brightmore 1987) 
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Arpegge gives a student the opportunity to implement arpeggio studies that they 
have been working on previously but with minor alternations. It is a contemporary work, 
so one could use this as a forum to discuss the stylistic aspects of modern art music. 



Level 4. 



29 



Level 4 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


4.1 Study #1 


Francesco Tarrega 


Improved alternation, 
diatonic scale passages 


4.2 Minuet 


J.S. Bach 


Counterpoint, get to play 
Bach 


4.3 Almoin 


Robert Johnson 


Difficult harmony and 
rhythm 


4.4 Trow Nocturnes, no. 1 


J.K. Mertz 


Student learns to play in the 
romantic style 


4.5 Adelita 


Francesco Tarrega 


Learn higher positions, ste 
m direction, distinguish 
bass and treble 



4.1 Studio no.l- Francisco Tarrega (Rodriguez 1991) 






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« 



i-i ?/,■ --,■:■ „&6.: :. 



4ffi !w™w™~«JB™. ,.„.,.„y„ •%$*- .) .; ai-.™!™**™***. 



The first study by Francisco Tarrega is an excellent exercise for any guitarist. It 
improves the student's alternation of/ and M giving them many opportunities to play 



30 



diatonic scale passages in the first position. Due to the alternation, difficult string 

crossing is required. 

4.2 Minuet- Johann Sebastian Bach arr. Norbert Kraft (Kraft 1990) 

(M.M.J =96) 



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p i °J | jj J I i 



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Minuet is an excellent transcription that can be quite helpful to the student 
guitarist. It is a great exercise to assist a student in understanding counterpoint and to be 
able to execute complex right hand movements. Also the student is able to play a work 
by one of the most important and influential composers in history. 
4.3 Almain- Robert Johnson (Noad 1974) 

i 4 1 3 



l 1*" 13 

g J I % T * 



Almain is another piece from the renaissance period, that allows the student to be 
able to play interesting rhythms and harmony. It is shorter, so the student is not too 
overwhelmed but still able to convey these musical ideas. 

4.4 Trois Nocturnes op.4, no.l- Johann Kasper Mertz (Wynberg 1985) 
Andante con moto 



3E 



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31 

The three Nocturnes by Mertz are some of his more didactie pieces. The first of 
these is an excellent example of the Romantic style. It allows room for rubato and can 
give a student the opportunity to attempt more expressive playing. It also contains dotted 
rhythms like the Sor only this piece requires moving to the fifth position. 
4.5 Adelita- Francisco Tarrega (Rodriguez 1991) 



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Adelita is an excellent way for students to learn the higher positions. The overall 
concept of the piece is quite simple but the execution requires the student to play out of 
their comfortable range. It also gives students the opportunity phrase melodic passages 
and balance inner voices. The piece can also be used to explain stem direction and the 
notation involved in distinguishing between the treble, bass and inner voices, as well as 
slurs. 



32 



Level 5. 



Level 5 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


5.7 Canarios 


Gasper Sanz 


Hemeola, use of 
ornamentation 


5.2 Walzer WoO 


J.K. Mertz 


Slurs and staccatos 


5.3 Trois Nocturnes, no. 2 


J.K. Mertz 


Rubato and phraseing 


5.4 Preludio sem.29 


Tarrega 


Complex chord shapes, 
higher register 



5.7 Canarios- Gasper Sanz (Koonce 2006) 



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Canarios is arguably one of Sanz's most well known and most played works. The 
hemeola created by the division of the bass line is quite effective. He first establishes a 
grouping of two in the bass line followed by a D on the second beat of the next measure, 
establishing a grouping of three. This piece also requires the student to use strumming 
which is an invaluable tool for any guitarist. The students also get to learn a piece written 
for the Baroque guitar, which can also be discussed within a historical context. 



33 



5.2 Walzer WoO- Johann Kasper Mertz (Wynberg 1985) 



No .4. 



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The Walzes by Mertz is a piece that holds many of the characteristics that we 
think of in relation to good music. It has a strong melody and the overall writing of the 
work requires much practice from the student, but is still attainable. While the example 
above seems easy, the further into the piece one studies the true difficulty of the work 
appears. It includes slurs, which were introduced in Adelita and staccato figures that can 
really challenge a student. 
5.3 Trois Nocturnes op.4, no.2- Johann Kasper Mertz (Wynberg 1985) 



Andantino 

No.2.~ 



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The second of the three nocturnes by Mertz, follows the same concept as before. 
The difficult of this piece lie in the musical aspects rather than technical subdivisions. It 
requires the use of rubato and phrasing to be affective. It does require the student to play 
duple in the treble line while simultaneously playing in triple division in the bass. While 
playing two against three is difficult at first, the slow tempo and placement of the note on 
the open string makes this an attainable goal. 



34 



5.4 Preludio sem. 29-Francisco Tarrega (Rodriguez 1 99 1 ) 




Tarrega's 29 th prelude is a great etude for teaching a student to play in higher 
registers. A reason for this is that the work is not long and focuses on block chords 
followed by arpeggios. This gives the student time to reach these difficult chord shapes 
and learn these movements. Though it looks quite difficult, the tempo and length of the 
piece makes it easier for a student at this level to be able to perform such a work. 



35 



Level 6. 



Level 6 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


6.1 Pavanas 


Gasper Sanz 


Ornamentation, specifically 
trills 


6.2 Valse in C minor 


Franicis Kleynjans 


Understand three-part 
texture, holding out note 
values 


6.3 Recuerdo 


Jamie N. Zenamon 


Bringing out of melodic 
notes in an otherwise dense 
texture 


6.4 Reggae Sunrise 


Martin Byatt 


Complex arpeggio paterns 


6.1 Pavanas- Gasper Sanz ( 


<Coonce 2006) 





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This Pavannas is another famous work by Gasper Sanz, which requires much 
skill from the guitarist who plays it. It can look deceptively easy, but with the required 
ornamentation, it can be quite difficult. An example of this is the inner string trill that 
takes place in the second measure of the work. 



36 



6.2 Valse en si mineur Op. 77- Francis Kleynjans (Brightmore 1987) 



J. 



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This Fa/se by Franicis Kleynjans is a great example of mixing an old style such as 
a waltz, with the more modern harmonies. It gives the student the experience of bringing 
out certain melodies while balancing the inner voices. One can utilize this work to help 
them grasp the concept of the three-part texture. The execution of this piece also requires 
the player to hold the notes to there proper and full value. 
6.3 Recuerdo- Jamie M. Zenamon (Brightmore 1987) 
Moderato 



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m 



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This work requires the student to fluent reading in many positions. It also 
requires them to read multiple accidentals and play more contemporary harmonies. The 
piece is also valuable in that to properly play it, one must master the ability to bring out 
single melodic notes from a otherwise arpeggio texture. 



37 



6.4 Reggae Sunrise- Martin Byatt (Brightmore 1987) 



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ff 



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(5) 



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Reggae Sunrise is a great piece to help a student understand and internalize 
syncopation. It is in E Major and consists of chords outlining the basic syncopated 
concept. The piece also requires many arpeggio patterns containing many accidentals. 
The piece as a whole also includes much chromatic writing and the necessity to use more 
advanced fingerings. 



38 



Level 7. 



Level 7 Repertoire List 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


7.1 Paisaje 


Jaime M. Zenamon 


Correct note duration 


7.2 Chinese Blosson 


Jaime M. Zenamon 


musicality 


7.3 Monferrina 


Mauro Giuliani 


Grace notes 


1 A Lessson 8 


Fernando Sor 


unusual chord shapes and 
non-idiomatic writing 


7.5 Petite Piece 


Fernando Sor 


dotted-quarter-eighth 
passages, slurs 



7.1 Paisaje- Jamie M. Zenamon (Brightmore 1987) 



Calmo 
P 



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The work is in 6/8 and requires the student to follow the correct note duration. It 
is especially difficult to accomplish this in the bass. It requires much practice and 
discipline to attain this concept but it is paramount to good guitar playing. The work also 



39 

requires the student to play many of the bass notes on the D string and then rest his or her 
thumb on one of the other strings, this can be a difficult movement that could require 
much practice. 
7.2 Chinese Blossom- Jaime M. Zenamon (Brightmore 1987) 




Chinese Blossom is a slow melodic piece that requires the student to be able to 
show extreme musicality and touch to convey the musical exercise of the piece. While 
this exercise is technically much simpler, the musical expression needed for a successful 
performance of this piece is of a high level. Legato can be a difficult expression to 
accomplish when playing an irregular arpeggio pattern, this exercise requires the student 
to be able to execute this concept. The student also will learn how to allow certain notes 
to ring beyond duration, such as in the last beat of the first measure. 
7.3 Monferrina Op. 12, No.3- Mauro Giuliani (Kraft 1990) 



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The Monferrina is another Giuliani piece that requires the player to perform 
within the classical style. This is made even more difficult due to the grace note passages 
throughout the work. This is a great piece for the aspiring player in that the texture is 
quite simple which allows the student to be able to concentrate on the more important 
lesson that practicing the piece can yield. 



40 



7.4 Lesson 8 from 24 progressive lessons op. 31- Fernando Sor (Jeffery 200 1 ) 




Andante 



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Number eight of the progressive studies is an excellent tool for a student guitarist 
as it addressees many issues such as unusual chord shapes and non-idiomatic writing. It 
uses essentially many techniques and requires many awkward shifts. Another reason that 
this work helps students is how the right-hand part is much less complex than the left and 
this allows the student the freedom to concentrate on the more difficult concept. 
7.5 Petite piece 1 from 6 Petite pieces op. 32- Fernando Sor (Jeffery 2001 ) 




This is one of the six small pieces by Sor. It utilizes many of Sor' s writing 
techniques. It consists of chordal and dotted-quarter-eighth patterns and can be quite 
difficult. It requires the student to be proficient in complex rhythmic ideas such as 
quintuplets and sextuplets. The piece also employs the use of slurs which differs than 
many of the previous works in the collection. 



Level 8. 



Level 8 Repertoire List 



41 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


8.1 Cake Walk 


Richard Charlton 


chromatic texture, improves 
dexterity and speed 


8.2 a Sonatina #1 op. 71 
Movement I 


Mauro Giuliani 


Arpeggio figures that are 
common among many of 
his larger works, continuous 
theme and variation 


8.2b Sonatina#l op. 71 
Movement 11 


Mauro Giuliani 


In F, also requires limited 
alternation and arpeggio 
figures 


8.2c Sonatina op. 71 #7 
Movement III 


Mauro Giuliani 


Contains both sixteenth 
note and arpeggio patterns 
within the movement. 



8.1 Cakewalk- Richard Charlton (Brightmore 1987) 



Andante (J - ca. 96) 



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42 

Cakewalk is another modern piece that could really improve a student's abilities, 
in terms of left-hand dexterity and speed. It is a great exercise for the left hand and 
improves dexterity and speed. The use of accidentals and therefore, chromatic texture 
makes this piece an exceptional reading challenge. 
8.2 Sonatina op. 71 no.l -Mauro Giuliani (Jeffery 2002) 

The final piece in the curriculum is Mauro Giuliani's Sonatina no.l. It is a work 
in three movements and is a staple of the student guitarist's repertoire. The entire 
Sonatina is in first position, which is comfortable for one at this level and therefore 
allows a student to focus on other difficult tasks. This is not an easy work, as it consists 
of multiple movements. It is the largest endeavor of the curriculum and this is why level 
eight only has two pieces. The majority of students would take an entire nine weeks to 
prepare a piece of this size and scope. The work is an accurate example of the classical 
style. It includes many of the most famous forms of the time and this knowledge can be 
imparted to the student. An example would be the explanation of how the first movement 
is a theme followed by variations. One could use the Menuetto and Trio movement to 
explain how during this era the menuetto would be followed by a trio and then a return to 
the menuetto. The work also includes a rondo, which is one of the cornerstones' of the 
classical style. The idea of returning to the A section after both the B and C sections 
gives the work the cohesiveness that gave these classical forms their esteem. 
Movement I-Maestoso (Jeffery 2002) 
Mao 5 to so 




"TTf 



43 

The first movement of the work is a typical form of the classical era; a continuous 
theme and variation that utilizes many arpeggio figures that are common among many of 
his larger works. The form itself can be discussed to introduce these concepts to the 
student. The movement begins with the melody in quarter notes then evolves into 
multiple variations containing eighth and sixteenth note phrases, this rhythmic 
acceleration can an excellent way to introduce this concept to a student. 
Movement II- Menuetto and Trio (Jeffery 2002) 



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j ^ V _ — * 

p <*> fk. —- -— ~ «A 

The second movement of the work is a menuetto and trio. This movement is in F 
Major, which is ideal practice for an instrument that rarely plays in flat keys. The 
movement also requires limited alternation and arpeggio figures that are quite common in 
guitar music. It also contains dotted-eighth-sixteenth patterns throughout the movement. 

Movement III- Rondo (Jeffery 2002) 




The Rondo is the concluding movement of the work and though it is extended but 
playable. The practice of playing longer pieces prepares the student for when they do 
require playing a long piece. It contains both sixteenth note and arpeggio patterns within 
the movement. 



44 

In conclusion, classical guitar instruction can be overwhelming for both the 
teacher and student. As it is with all music instruction, bad habits are hard to break and 
should be avoided. In order to provide for good instruction one must have a set lesson 
plan for the student. Issues of rhythm should be introduced incrementally to properly 
guide the various complexities therein. The register of the piece must be of the proper 
level or the student will be too overwhelmed with the concept. The length of works must 
be appropriate or the student will not have the muscular or mental stamina to be able to 
properly execute a work. The student must be given a piece that is of a sufficiently 
simple reading level or he or she will develop bad reading habits or a simple inability to 
read notation. The repertoire selection, must be idiomatic in nature, or the student will be 
struggling with a piece that does not work well on the guitar and, until they reach a more 
advanced level, another more suitable selection should be chosen. Key signature is 
another important aspect of repertoire selection; in that the guitar can be exponentially 
more difficult to play in flat keys and so a teacher must choose a different piece for this 
reason. The overall texture of the work can affect the validity of the repertoire selection. 
If the texture is simply too dense, then a student might not be able to play a work of this 
level. One of the most important things to remember is the difficulty of the individual 
right and left-hand parts. One should not choose a piece that is extremely difficult for 
both hands. A good teacher would choose a piece where the student can accomplish the 
requirements of one hand easily be able to concentrate on the other hand's issues. This 
allows for a more gradual improvement, which is always preferred. It is with these 
concepts for which a teacher must be prepared, or said teacher must face inconsistent 
progress and overall stagnation of the learning process. This is why this curriculum is 



45 



such a practical tool for the secondary guitar instructor; it takes all of these pitfalls into 
account and leaves the teacher with a quality sequence of instruction. 



46 



Appendix A: Repertoire List 



47 



The complete list of repertoire. 



Work 


Composer 


Pedagogical benefit 


So-RE One 


Shearer 


Practice playing the open G 
an D strings 


Bugler 's Tune 


Shearer 


Practice playing three open 
strings. 


Scale Song 


Shearer 


Practice playing part of the 
major scale. 


Counterpoint 


Shearer 


Student is introduced to the 
basic idea of counterpoint. 


The Weaver- 


Shearer 


Improvement in reading 
quarter and eighth note 
passages, develops a sense 
of rhythmic proportions 


Dance of the Downward 
Skip 


Shearer 


Practice skipping multiple 
strings. 


March 


Shearer 


Practice using P 
exclusively. 


Serenade 


Shearer 


Student plays multiple lines 
for the first time. 


Folk Dance 


Shearer 


Similar to Serenade, but 
with more complex rhythm. 



48 



Two by Two 


Shearer 


Student plays two notes 
simultaneously. 


Petite Valse 


Shearer 


Student plays in a musical 
texture common to guitar. 


Andante I 


Shearer 


Rhythmically similar 
Serenade, with a greater 
variety of notes. 


Music Box 


Shearer 


Alternates P with IM 


Moorish Dance 


Shearer 


Alternates a bass line with 
broken chords. 


The Gondolier 


Shearer 


PIM Arpeggio 


Etude Moderne 


Shearer 


PIM Arpeggio 


Prelude in A Major Op 1 14 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PIMA Arpeggio 


Prelude in a minor Op 114. 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PIMAMI Arpeggio 


Prelude in e minor Op 114 


Ferdinando Carulli 


PM alternating / Arpeggio 


Etude #2 in a minor 


Matteo Carcassi 


PIMA followed by changing 
position to play Right hand 
alternation. 


Etude #19 


Matteo Carcassi 


AMIMA Arpeggio pattern 


Etude #7 


Matteo Carcassi 


Tremolo 


Estudio Sencillo 


Leo Brouwer 


PAMIAMIPAMIP 
Arpeggio 



49 



Wilson 's Wild 


Anonymous 


Student must use more 
advanced right hand 
alternation. 


The Parlement 


Anonymous 


Student uses more advanced 
alternation, more complex 
rhythms, altered tunning 


Volt 


Anonymous 


Student uses more advanced 
alternation, more complex 
rhythms, altered tunning, 
more shifting of positions. 


Andante Op. 44, No.l 


Fernando Sor 


Work includes monophonic 
texture followed by 
counterpoint. 


Andante Op. 27 


Ferdinando Carulli 


Student must play 
homophonic texture 
alternating with chords. 


Andante op. 35, no. 14 


Fernando Sor 


Piece contains more 
advanced rhythmic figures 
and stylistic concerns. 


Andantino op. 50, No. 21 


Mauro Giuliani 


This work develops 
students ability to execute 
complex rhythmic ideas and 
stylistic issues 



50 



Arrpegie 


Francis Kleynjans 


The piece utilizes arpeggio 
patterns and modem 
harmonies to give the 
student a piece from a 
different period. 


Study #1 


Francesco Tarrega 


Improved alternation, 
diatonic scale passages 


Minuet 


J.S. Bach 


Counterpoint, get to play 
Bach 


Almoin 


Robert Johnson 


Difficult harmony and 
rhythm 


Trois Nocturnes, no. 1 


J.K. Mertz 


Student learns to play in the 
romantic style 


Adelita 


Francesco Tarrega 


Learn higher positions, ste 
m direction, distinguish 
bass and treble 


Pavanas 


Gasper Sanz 


Ornamentation, specifically 
trills 


Valse in C minor 


Franicis Kleynjans 


Understand three-part 
texture, holding out note 
values 


Recuerdo 


Jamie N. Zenamon 


Bringing out of melodic 
notes in an otherwise dense 



51 







texture 


Reggae Sunrise 


Martin Byatt 


Complex arpeggio patterns 



Paisaje 


Jaime M. Zenamon 


Correct note duration 


Chinese Blosson 


Jaime M. Zenamon 


musicality 


Monferrina 


Mauro Giuliani 


Grace notes 


Lessson 8 


Fernando Sor 


unusual chord shapes and 
non-idiomatic writing 


Petite Piece 


Fernando Sor 


dotted-quarter-eighth 
passages, slurs 


Cake Walk 


Richard Charlton 


chromatic texture, improves 
dexterity and speed 


Sonatina #1 op. 71 


Mauro Giuliani 


Arpeggio figures that are 
common among many of 
his larger works, continuous 
theme and variation 


Sonatina#l op. 71 


Mauro Giuliani 


In F, also requires limited 
alternation and arpeggio 
figures 



52 



List of References 



Brightmore, R. (Ed.). (1987). Modern Times Volume I. 
Heidelberg: Chanterelle Verlag. 

Brouwer, L. (Ed.). (1972). Etudes Simples - Volume 2: Nos. 6-10 . Paris: Max Eschig. 

Henry, P. (Ed.). (1993). Matteo Carcassi - 25 Melodic and Progressive Studies, Op. 
60. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. 

Jeffery, B (Ed.). (2001). Fernando Sor: The New Complete Works for Guitar.Vol. 4 
Budapest: Telca Editions. 

Jeffery, B (Ed.). (2002). Mauro Giuliani: The complete Works Vol. 8 London: Telca 
Editions. 

Koonce, Frank (2006). The Baroque Guitar in Spain and the New World. Pacific, Mo: 
Mel Bay. 

Kraft, N (Ed.). (1990). Royal Consen>atory of Music Guitar Series: Book 1 . 
Oakville, Ontario: The Fredrick Harris Music Co., Limited. 

Kraft, N (Ed.). (1990). Royal Conservatory of Music Guitar Series: Book 2. 
Oakville, Ontario: The Fredrick Harris Music Co., Limited. 

Kraft, N (Ed.). (1990). Royal Consematojy of Music Guitar Series: Book 3. 
Oakville, Ontario: The Fredrick Harris Music Co., Limited 

Noad, F. (Ed). (1976). The Classical Guitar. New York, NY: Ariel Publications. 

Noad, F. (Ed.) (1974). The Renaissance Guitar. New York, NY: Ariel Publications. 

Rodriguez, M (Ed.). (1991). Tarrega: Obras Completas Para Gitarra Vol. I. Madrid: 
Soneto. 

Ricordi, (1973). Carulli, 24 Preludi, dall'Op. 1 14, Per Chitarra. Milwaukee, WI: Hal 
Leonard. 

Shearer, Aaron (1990). Learning the Classic Guitar Part 2: Reading and Memorizing 
Music. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay. 

Shearer, Aaron (1990). Learning the Classic Guitar Part One. Pacific, MO: Mel Bay. 



53 



Tarsy, D, & Simon, D, K (2006). Dystonia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from 
http://content.nejm.Org/cgi/content/short/355/8/8 1 8. 

Wynberg, S (Ed.). (1985). Johan Kasper Mertz Guitar Works volume V. Heidelberg: 
Chanterelle.